Best Ghana Coffees in 2022
Ghana coffee is mainly Robusta and is characterized by the caffeinated bitterness. The flavor profile of the coffees is fruitiness, winey and berry like acidity.
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Coffee in Ghana
Ghana is a country located in the African sub-Saharan. The country is bordered by like four African countries among which Ivory Coast one of the African coffee producing countries. Coffee growing was introduced in the mid-18th century in the country. The country is very popular for being the 2nd largest cocoa producing country in the whole world.
Though coffee growing is a small sector in Ghana, the industry is increasing noticeably due to the government effort to make the country recognized as a major coffee producer in the world. The country mostly produces the caffeinated Robusta coffee owing to the fact that the country have very low altitudes the highest being 400 meters above the mean sea level which is very low compared to the 1200 plus meters above the mean sea level required for quality production of the Arabica beans.
Conditions for growth of coffee plants
The country has warmer climates characterized by desert winds which brow from the south to north of Ghana giving the country hot days and cooler nights. The cooler nights are essential for delayed coffee ripening contributing to the fruity coffee flavor due to the coffee bean having greater period of interaction with the fruit cherry.
Since the altitudes are low with the highest being just 400 meters, Robusta beans do well in these elevations. However the country is not suitable for the high grown Arabica coffees. The country also receives ample rainfall needed for coffee growing with good soils and moderate varying temperatures.
Future of coffee growing in Ghana
The country have set a rehabilitation coffee program that is meant to increase the yields of coffee in the country. The country is targeting to double their produce up to about 10 000 coffee metric tons by the year 2022 (ten year project). The government has put under their management 5,000,000 coffee crop seedlings which are to be distributed to the farmers for free. The seeds are early maturing seedlings and high yielding and are expected to help the country achieve more yields in coffee.
In the year 1997 to 1998, the country harvested around 10 000 metric tons of coffee beans though this was short lived for a small period. This was due to negative pricing policy and price fluctuation in the global market. Ghana is also focusing at achieving a yield of about two to three tons of coffee beans every acre and achieve 100 000 hectares of coffee by the year 2022. With this goals the country wishes to achieve about 200 000 metric tons by the year2030.
Green coffee farming in Ghana
In the year 2006 the country worked hard and achieved 3 000 coffee metric tons annually with extension of acre coverage of coffee to about 5 000 acres. The country again achieved the targeted ten year coffee production doubling by achieving 6000 tons annually by the year 2015. This is a sign that the coffee industry in Ghana is subject to succeeding and it is possible to achieve the 10 000 or more metric tons of green coffee beans by the year 2022. The country is not only having their coffee yield go high but also working on their infrastructure to ensure that coffee production reaches the market more efficiently.
The country focuses to be in a coffee competitive position in the globe market where the country aims at selecting their good quality coffees and setting the in the competitive market in the United States, Europe, Australia and Canada so as the world can consider the country a serious coffee producing nation.
Coffee variety grown in Ghana
The country specializes mainly in the Robusta coffee beans which are often regarded as low quality beans compared to the Arabica coffees. The country lacks the required conditions to produce Arabica beans especially in the elevations. The country’s highest peak is 400 meters above the mean sea level which is significantly low as compared to the 1200 and above meters elevation required for growing the coffee Arabica beans. Robusta coffee does well in this low elevations and thus automatic coffee choice for the country.
The method used for processing the Ghanaian coffee beans is through natural or sun drying. The coffee drying processing stage is very vital at shaping the quality of the final coffee in the cup so it has to be done with much care. The goal of drying the beans is reducing the content of moisture present in the coffee cherries. Processing is done immediately after picking the coffee beans and is usually out doors on thin mats or on concrete/other drying methods.
To ensure the coffee beans are evenly dried they are turned using rakes. This drying method usually takes two to four weeks depending on the sun shine intensity. The coffee cherries are then placed in hullers when the pulp show sighs of peeling off for de-pulping. The farmers then carefully pick the unwanted things from the hulled coffee beans.
Regions where coffee is produced in Ghana
Though the country is major cocoa producer in the world, coffee production can be more lucrative in the country. This is argued from the point that cocoa require rainfall amount ranging from about 1200 to 2000 rainfall amount in millimeters while coffee can grow at an average rainfall of 1000mm without being supplemented with irrigation.
Coffee growing regions in the country include; Volta, Wenchi, Jamasi, Dambai, Drobo, Atetubu, Kete Krachi, Techiman, Nkoranza and Benchem.
Coffee production in Ghana
Coffee farming consist both of small scale and large scale producers. Small scale produces about 960 kilograms per hectare while the large scale producers produce up to 1.5 tons per hectare. The government is initiating a program where the small scale farmers are educated on high yield production in a small piece of land and also advanced farming methods together with financial support
Coffee brewing for Ghanaian beans
These high caffeinated coffees are best brewed using a lot of sweetening to deal with the bitter taste of the caffeinated beans. This includes use of condensed milk, sugar and ice to top up the flavor of the coffee.
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